Successful Evolution of Software Systems

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The early SDLC is also referred to as the waterfall One characteristic of agile methods is the informal model as each phase produces an artifact that leads into communication among stakeholders. Informal the next phase, in one direction only without any going communication minimizes the necessity to document back, like water flowing over a waterfall [22].

This development progress, in contrast to conventional model is possibly the most widely known model and, SDLC [25]. Furthermore, agile practices tend to with variations, used to be the most common model in determine specifications from user stories rather than industry practice. As Despite the reduced need for documentation, the need such, the waterfall model is very suitable for systems for some documentation arises when there is a development projects with well defined requirements.

As such, the minimal documentation alleviate some of these disadvantages. Prototyping provides better control than limited support for 1 distributed systems development the pure waterfall model in terms of meeting user environments, 2 outsourcing to subcontractors, 3 requirements.

Systems engineering

Documenting the SDLC 2. Research Approach managers, and users, particularly in the analysis phase [9].

The purpose of the first stage was therefore allowing researchers to develop a theoretical account to motivate developers, particularly engineers, to write while grounding the account based on empirical better code by making source code visible through observations or data. In addition, grounded theory inspection. This Grounded theory consists of three phases, which stage saw another two projects, of which the first, are open coding, axial coding, and selective coding.

In this stage, the of their properties and dimensions, and proceeds by author took several actions, which included separating relating categories through hypotheses or statements of designers and programmers, generating an integration- relationships. Axial coding is concerned with test plan from the technical requirements, encouraging systematically developing and relating categories. The data are progress, and recording and documenting problems. The third to define theory based on data from the previous two stage started in , precisely a year after J This phases.

Activities at this stage included generating 2. Review of the Case Study Design Document Guidelines, reviewing Document Change Requests, creating skeleton code before The case study [18], which examines the systems coding, conducting unit testing, tracking problems for development project progress in conventional SDLC, is improvement, improving the Web site that contains a published report based on action research conducted past-project information and relevant documents, by Tetsuro Motoyama, Chief Research and initiating documents automation, and scheduling Development Engineer of Advanced Imaging and management.

Network Technologies at Ricoh, a company that primarily produces cameras and electronic office 3. Findings equipment. This case study was selected because it provides a complete narrative description of a 3.

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Most other published case studies e. As was Erdogmus [6] are too condensed or were adapted to mentioned, the open coding defines and develops the use of specific research methodologies. This phase specifically uncovers texts and research group that explores various software exposes thoughts, ideas, and meanings contained technologies at Ricoh. The case study reviews two therein [21].

During the axial coding phase, data that issues in the SDLC that force the author to improve the were fractured during open coding are reassembled to development process, involving sixteen projects form major categories. Finally, these categories are divided into three stages. The three stages include integrated to form a larger theoretical scheme, which problem recognition and initial response, process will be the theory behind this study.

The initial impression that was found in this The first stage involved familiarizing members with case study is that systems development projects best practices of SDLC. The author specifies that regularly face many problems. Stage 2: Process Establishment and Early 3. Stage 1: Problem Recognition and Initial Trials.

This stage involved a pilot project that began in Response. The objective of this stage was to refine the To start out, Motoyama read some design, insufficient analysis of problems, a long design published guidelines, Code Complete1. Then, I distributed the book construction, difficult code integration due to compile to all the engineers in my department and instructed and link errors, insufficient time to learn new them to follow the techniques it describes.

Motoyama states that this project successfully for the department. One was to inspect code before check-in. This transitional Process, I simplified the inspection procedure to fit project lasted only six months, but we had time to our small department. Second, I made the coding improve our development process. This project utilized the problems, implement easier error correction during new development process with additional insights from integration, and complete partial code constructed by an SDLC guideline document, Software Project departed member s.

Survival Guide2. Another benefit was that dramatically improves quality of the design documents correcting errors during integration became easier, in general. The members become more disciplined and inspection, resulting in improved inspection. In code becomes better constructed. At this stage, addition, when the design contained errors, the documentation provides the benefit of early error programmer could more easily recover from the detection.

Despite several problems, including tremendously. The early integration-test specification was to Motoyama specifies his satisfaction with the second generate an integration-test plan based on the technical stage, particular J02 as follow: requirements while developers created a better design. Stage 3: Continuous Improvement. The next project, J03, started in April and generated the Design Document Each team member regularly updated the task list Guidelines. Though these guidelines were not at each development stage. The task list in general immediately accepted as department standards, they helped update the project schedule and thus increased served as a basis for later improvements.

Later, when we had accumulated enough received and used throughout the remaining projects. During J04, we increasingly used Document Change Requests. The next initiative included creating a risk list and Also, we analyzed the reasons for the change appointing a risk officer. So, we had The development team has had track records of sufficient time to recover from any unanticipated problems encountered during the development process.

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As part of the documents, the Further, Motoyama implemented regular discussion records are published automatically using the Web. Furthermore, automation is not only limited to 3.

The Software Development Process

Learning from Established Documents. One tracking problems, but also for some parts of the of such essential concepts that emerge is that reviewing development process. Axial and Selective Coding Phases mistakes, and outcomes resulting in fewer errors. Each team member is encouraged to review and learn from This section analyzes the emerging concepts and previous documents, which include development theory from the previous section. The use of axial and process guidelines and literature on development selective coding encourages theory to emerge based on process. Best practices as lessons learned are applied to the previous concepts.

Based on the following the actual development process. The application of best concepts, the theory uncovered in this study states that practices should be adjusted based on the needs and documentation, coordination, integration significantly circumstances of the project. Learning from established reduce errors and accelerate systems development documents significantly reduces errors and increases process.

Figure 1 shows the theoretical model for this development speed, as members know what to do and study. Systems that have fewer errors and a reasonable development process according to its original schedule 3. Revisiting Previous Mistakes. This study finds are the desired outcomes on almost all conventional that members of the team are often reluctant to admit SDLC projects. Any errors should be documented for mistakes that occur during the development process.

Members are required to report and record not only As was mentioned earlier, documentation progress and desired outcomes, but also mistakes, significantly increases the successful outcomes of problems, and errors that significantly affect the conventional SDLC, however, documentation alone is development process. Only by doing so will all team not sufficient to guarantee success.


Good members learn what to do to improve the development documentation requires coordination among process and avoid project failure. Mistakes and errors development team members and stakeholders, and should be documented for future reference. Table 1 summarizes the concepts decoded in this study. Coordination and Integration. Not only the errors and thus help increase development speed. Developing Systems Documents. Document Team members meet regularly to discuss and report development is the most essential concept in this study.

Results of the model composed in this study. Previous SDLC the meetings should also be documented for future documents can always be used as guidelines and reference. Furthermore, responsibilities and tasks of each team Documenting involves recording any activity, member need to be clearly specified. The case study mistake, and improvement in any phase of the reports that members have overlapping tasks and development process. Documenting needs to be responsibilities, sometimes resulting in prototype code implemented not only for recording meetings.

  1. What is System Development Life Cycle?.
  2. Night Terrors: The Ghost Stories of E. F. Benson.
  3. What is release management?.

Therefore, tasks Documenting helps accelerate development process should be clearly defined so that activities and and reduces errors. Lessons of best practices are applied to the actual project. In the decade since the waterfall model was developed, our discipline has come to recognize that setting the requirements is the most difficult and crucial part of the software development process, and one that requires iteration between designers and users.

The Defense Science Board, in reports in 6 and , 7 continued to argue for the abandonment of the waterfall model, the adoption of the spiral model, and the use of iterative development with frequent end-user involvement. For the first time the acquisition policy directives identified evolutionary acquisition as the preferred approach for acquisition.

In the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics issued a memorandum clarifying the policy on evolutionary acquisition and spiral development and setting forth a model based on multiple delivered increments and multiple spiral cycles within each delivered increment.

The current version of DODI retains the policy statement that evolutionary acquisition is the preferred approach. It further provides the governance and oversight model for evolutionary development cycles. However, the series regulations remain dominated by a hardware and weapons systems mentality. For example, the terminology used to describe the engineering and manufacturing development phase emphasizes the hardware and manufacturing focus of the process. In the evolutionary acquisition governance model, each phase repeats every one of the decision milestones A , B , and C and also repeats every program phase.

Basili, B. Boehm, E. Bond, N.